Loader is a kind of earthwork construction machinery widely used in highway, railroad, construction, hydropower, port, mine and other construction projects. It is mainly used for shoveling bulk materials such as soil, gravel, lime, coal, etc. It can also make light shoveling operation for ore, hard soil, etc. Since the loader has the advantages of operating speed fast, high efficiency, good maneuverability, light operation and other advantages, so it has become One of the main types of machines for earthmoving construction in engineering construction.

1、Loader Introduction

The loader is mainly used to shovel, load, unload and transport bulk materials such as soil and stone, and can also perform light shoveling operations on rocks and hard soil. If you change different working devices, can also complete the bulldozing, lifting, loading and unloading of other materials. In highway construction, it is mainly used for filling and excavation of road foundation project, aggregate and loading of asphalt and cement concrete yard. As it has the advantages of fast operation, good mobility and light operation, it has developed rapidly and become the main machinery in earthwork construction.


2、Loader specifications

The model number of the loader, the letter indicates the place of origin, the number is the model number, and the middle number indicates the bucket capacity.

IW321、IW521F、IW541F、ZL50G、IW300K IW350K、IW400K、IW420F、IW500F、IW600K、IW800K、LW221、 LW250、LW100、LW160、LW168G、LW166、LW160FB、LW820G、LW500K-II LW60G、ZL30G、ZL50G、ZL40G、 ZL40GH、ZL60G、ZL50GH、ZL06、ZL20A、LW188、LW321、LW166、WA30-5、WA50-5、WA80-3、WA120-3、 WA180-3、WA250-3、WA320-3、WA320-3 custom。WA380、WA380-3、WA380-5、WA430-5、WA420-3 WA470-3 WA470-5、WA480-5、WA500-3 WA600-3、WA700-3、WA800-3、WA900-3、WA1200-3、WA50-3、D21S-7、D31S-20、 D57S-7 D75S-5、WA500-6、WA600-6。

3、Special working devices for loaders

1, Greater bucket: On the basis of the standard model configuration, the bucket capacity is increased to improve the working efficiency to meet the loading of lighter weight materials, such as coal.

2, Rock King: mainly for loading and unloading rock conditions, the bucket arm plate and support plate of bucket are strengthened, and equipped with high wear-resistant sub-blade plate and high wear-resistant precision cast bucket teeth, thus improve the service life of the whole bucket.

3, high unloading: to meet the increasing height of the fence of trucks, for coal and other materials with low specific gravity, that is, to meet the high unloading, but also to meet the large loading capacity, greatly improving efficiency.

4, Side dumping bucket: The bucket can be turned over in one direction, which can effectively reduce the labor intensity of the driver in the tunnel operation.

5, Clamp fork: mainly used in forestry and port for material handling and loading.

6, Quick-change device: mainly for the workplace there are a variety of materials need to load and unload the work environment, the driver can sit in the cab to the work device can be quickly replaced, easy to use, high operational efficiency, can replace the work device are: bucket, clamping fork, etc.

7. Grasping bucket: It is mainly used for grasping plant straw, etc. It has the features of large opening, tight compaction and high grasping efficiency.

Loader models and maintenance

4、Loader classification

Commonly used single bucket loader, according to the engine power, transmission form, travel system structure, loading mode of the different classification.

  1. Engine power:
  • Power is less than 74kw for small loaders.
  • Power in 74 ~ 147kw for medium-sized loader.
  • Power in 147 ~ 515kw for large loaders.
  • power greater than 515kw for the extra-large loader.

2. Drive form

  • hydraulic-mechanical transmission, small shock vibration, long life of transmission parts, convenient operation, automatic adjustment between speed and external load, generally used in medium and large loaders;
  • hydraulic transmission: stepless speed control, easy to operate, but poor startability, generally used only in small loaders;
  • electric drive: stepless speed regulation, reliable work, simple maintenance, high cost, generally used in large loaders.

5、Loader driving operation essentials

It is done by the driver himself, before driving and after closing the car every day. Its operations include:

1、When the loader is driving, the bucket should be retracted and the bucket should be about 400-500mm from the ground. pay attention to whether there are roadblocks or high-voltage lines etc. during the driving process. In addition to the prescribed driving personnel. Not allowed to take other people.

2、When the loader is driving, avoid sudden change of direction, when the bucket is raised with load, no sharp turn and emergency brake.

3, the loader must comply with traffic rules when driving on the road, careful driving, downhill slope is prohibited idle slip put.

4、If the engine stalls on the inclined slope, the bucket should be placed on the ground and braked, the operating lever should be placed in the middle position, and then start the engine.

5, the loader should pay attention to the bucket bar should not rise too high.

6、When unloading materials to slopes, trenches and pits, be careful not to make the bucket too far out to avoid overturning.

7、Do not work on the site where the inclination exceeds the specified level, and there must be no obstacle and irrelevant personnel in the operation area.

8、When the loader bogie is not locked, it is strictly forbidden to stand between the front and rear frame for maintenance.

9、After the big arm is raised, before lubrication and adjustment, the safety pin must be installed or other measures must be taken to support the big arm to prevent it from falling down and injuring people.

10、After the operation, the loader should be parked in a safe place, the bucket should be placed flat on the ground, all operating levers should be placed in the middle position, and the brake should be locked.