Basic structure and function of forklift

  • Engine

It is the power source of internal combustion forklift. It converts the heat energy produced by the fuel into mechanical energy and outputs the power outward through the flywheel of the engine.

  • Chassis

The chassis is used to support the body, receive the power output from the engine and ensure the forklift can drive normally. It includes transmission device, driving device, steering device and brake device. It includes transmission device, driving device, steering device and braking device, etc.

  • Forklift body

The body and frame of the forklift truck are integrated and welded together by steel sections. The cast iron block placed at the rear of the forklift and adapted to the model is the counterweight, whose weight is decided according to the size of the rated lifting capacity of the forklift and plays a balancing role when the forklift is loaded. To maintain the stability of the forklift.

  • Lifting mechanism

The lifting mechanism is mainly composed of the gantry and forks. The gantry is hinged on the front axle support body and consists of a set of parallel steel frames and sliding brackets for fixing the forks.

Forks are two steel forks bent at 90°, mounted on a sliding support, which are tools for carrying materials. The specifications of forks are designed according to the maximum load of the forklift. The forks can be Tilt forward and tilt back by hydraulic cylinder.

  • The main hydraulic systems are:
  1. The lifting hydraulic cylinder, whose plunger tip is fastened to the lifting gantry, controls the lifting and lowering of the forks.
  2. The tilting hydraulic cylinder, whose plunger tip is hinged to the gantry, controls the forward or backward tilt of the gantry.
  3. Hydraulic pump, which can be a vane pump or gear pump. The hydraulic pump outputs high pressure oil (6.37~15.7MPa) to drive the lift hydraulic cylinder and tilt hydraulic cylinder.
  4. Hydraulic distribution valve, consisting of valve body, lifting hydraulic cylinder spool, tilting hydraulic cylinder spool and safety valve. Its role is to control the lift or tilt hydraulic cylinder spool action by manipulating the handle to input the high pressure oil into the lift or tilt hydraulic cylinder according to the fork lift and tilt work needs. The function of the safety valve is when the oil pressure in the system exceeds a certain value When the oil pressure in the system exceeds a certain value, the oil will flow back to the oil tank from the return pipe.

What are the main parts of a forklift

Forklifts are mainly composed of five major systems: power unit, chassis, working device and electrical equipment, and these five systems are composed of thousands of forklift parts. Forklift power units include internal combustion counterbalanced forklifts, which are mainly forklifts powered by internal combustion engines. The internal combustion engine mainly has gasoline engine, diesel engine of liquid petroleum gas (natural gas) engine and dual-fuel engine and so on. It is composed of internal combustion engine (engine), transmission and driving device, operation and control device, working device and electrical equipment, etc. Composition.

1. Engine parts

Engine parts mainly include pistons, piston rings, connecting rod tiles, crankshaft tiles, cylinder liners, intake valves, exhaust valves, cylinder gaskets, injectors, oil pumps, starters, generators, flywheels, water pumps, camshafts, crankshafts, connecting rods, electromechanical pumps, diesel high-pressure pumps, pulleys, water tanks, hydraulic gear pumps, rocker arm assemblies, timing gears, fan blades, flywheel rings, cylinder blocks and cylinder heads, and other parts.

2. Transmission and drive units

Mainly composed of brake master pump, brake sub-pump, brake assembly, brake shoes, wheel hub, front wheel steel ring, brake drum, clutch master pump, clutch sub-pump, clutch pressure plate, clutch plate, release bearing, release bearing seat, multiway valve assembly, steering engine assembly, hydraulic pump assembly, hydraulic pump drive shaft, hydraulic oil grid, tie rod ball head, steering knuckle, steering wheel hub, transverse cylinder linkage, transverse cylinder linkage pin, transverse cylinder joint bearing, door frame bearing, door frame axle plate, door frame side roller, door frame sprocket, tilt cylinder, lifting cylinder and other parts.

3. Manipulation and control devices

It mainly consists of steering wheel, joystick, hydraulic lift joystick, tilt joystick, side shift joystick, rotating joystick, clamping joystick, forward and reverse joystick, forward gear, reverse gear, transmission gear, two-axis output gear, transmission shaft spline, transmission universal joint, transmission control valve (transmission solenoid valve, gear pull cable, gear ball, gear switch, friction plate/copper plate, spacer/steel plate, clutch housing, torque converter, torque converter connecting set pump drum, oil supply pump, flexible plate, differential, cross shaft, planetary gear, half shaft, half shaft gear, disc angle gear and other parts.

4. Working device

Also known as lifting structure, mainly composed of mechanical parts and hydraulic system. The working device can be divided into gantry type, parallel link type and boom telescopic type, of which the gantry type is the most widely used. Specific accessories classification can be divided into forks, holding clamps, paper roll clamps, crossties, rotating frame, steel claws, buckets, fork sets, set on the fork, used to increase the carrying length of the components, clamping part, clamping the goods of the appendages, barrel clamps, crossties, pickets, hooks, lifting arms, for lifting operations arm and hook, tilting forks, tilting forks with the block shelf, swing forks, used to load and unload barrel-shaped goods, around the fork The upper hinge point can swing left and right fork, articulated tilting fork, slewing fork, load stabilizer, container spreader, lifting and hanging containers with the apparatus, tilting bucket, bucket, loading and unloading bulk materials with the apparatus, pushing and pulling, pushing out, the second pushing out, the apparatus that can push out the goods from the fork, three-way fork, the apparatus that can load and unload the goods in front of the forklift and on the left and right sides, slewing gripper, the apparatus that can rotate around the horizontal The fork can be rotated around the horizontal axis, side shifting fork, fork beam can be moved laterally, forward shifting fork, fork with adjustable pitch, fork with adjustable pitch by hydraulic cylinder, log clamp, side shifting fork, etc.

5. Electrical equipment

It is mainly composed of forklift battery, lighting, various warning and alarm devices and other electrical components and wiring. Such as forklift bulb, forklift warning light, forklift headlight assembly, Forklift computer board, forklift module, forklift contactor, direction sensor, angle sensor, height sensor, speed sensor and other electrical equipment.